As defense secretary he substituted (1506) per citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing in Italy

As defense secretary he substituted (1506) per citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing in Italy

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the Florentine republic and rose rapidly mediante importance. This reform sprang from his conviction, arnesi forth per his major works, that the employment of mercenaries had largely contributed to the political weakness of Italy. Machiavelli became acquainted with power politics through his important diplomatic missions. He met Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger bourdonnement of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. twice and was sent by way of Florence onesto Louis XII of France (1504, 1510), to Pope Julius II (1506), and to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1507).

The Medicis’ return (1512) esatto Florence caused his dismissal; in 1513 he was briefly imprisoned and was tortured for his alleged complicity durante verso plot against the Medici. Machiavelli retired esatto his country mesi estivi, where he wrote his chief works. He humiliated himself before the Medici mediante verso vain attempt puro recover office. When, per 1527, the republic was briefly reestablished, Machiavelli was distrusted by many of the republicans, and he died thoroughly disappointed and embittered.

Principal Writings

Machiavelli’s best-known sistema, Il re [the prince] (1532), describes the means by which per prince may gain and maintain his power. His « ideal » prince (seemingly modeled on Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger chant of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. ) is per supremely adaptable, amoral, and calculating tyrant who would be able sicuro establish a unified Italian state. The last chapter of the rete di emittenti pleads for the eventual liberation of Italy from foreign rule. Interpretations of The Prince vary: it has been viewed as sincere advice, as verso plea for political office, as verso detached analysis of Italian politics, as evidence of early Italian nationalism, and as political satire on Medici rule. However, the adjective Machiavellian has come puro be a synonym for amoral cunning and for justification by power.

Less widely read but more indicative of Machiavelli’s politics is his scholarly Discorsi sulla anzi deca di Tito Livio [discourses on the first 10 books of Livy] (1531). Per it Machiavelli expounds verso general theory of politics and government that stresses the importance of an uncorrupted political culture and a vigorous political morality. Vaster in conception than The Prince, the Discourses shows clearly Machiavelli’s republican ideals and principles, which are also reflected in his Istorie Fiorentine [history of Florence] (1532), per historical and literary masterpiece, entirely modern mediante concept.

Other works include Dell’arte della contrasto [on the art of war] (1521), which viewed military problems durante relation preciso politics, and numerous reports and brief works. He also wrote many poems and plays, notably the lively, satiric, and ribald comedy Mandragola [the mandrake], an extremely popular rete di emittenti first performed con 1520. His correspondence has been preserved and is of great interest. The chief works of Machiavelli are cougar life prova gratuita available per several popular English editions.

Bibliography

See P. Constantine, anche., The Essential Writings of Machiavelli (2007); biographies by P. Villari (2 vol., tr. 1878), R. Ridolfi (1954, tr. 1963), and M. Vitoli (2000); H. Butterfield, The Statecraft of Machiavelli (1956); S. Anglo, Machiavelli (1970); Addirittura. Garver, Machiavelli and the History of Prudence (1987); P. S. Donaldson, Machiavelli and the Mystery of State (1989); R. King, Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power (2007); C. Vivanti, Niccolo Michiavelli: An Intellectual Biography (2013); P. Bobbitt, The Garments of Capable and Palace: Machiavelli and the World That He Made (2013); Per. Ryan, On Machiavelli: The Search for Glory (2013); M. Viroli, Redeeming « The Prince » (2013); Addirittura. Benner, Be like the Fox: Machiavelli’s Lifelong Quest for Freedom (2017).

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